The evaluation is among the first under the FSB framework for the post-implementation evaluation of the effects of the G20 financial regulatory reforms, and forms part of a broader FSB examination of the effects of reforms on financial intermediation. It focuses on infrastructure finance that is provided in the form of corporate and project debt financing (loans and bonds), for which the financial regulatory reforms are of immediate relevance.

The report concludes that the effect of the G20 reforms on infrastructure finance has been of a second order relative to factors such as the macro-financial environment, government policy and institutional factors. In particular, for the reforms that have been largely implemented and are most relevant for this evaluation – namely, the initial Basel III capital and liquidity requirements (agreed in 2010) and over-the-counter derivatives reforms – the analysis does not identify material negative effects on the provision and cost of infrastructure finance to date.

The evaluation further finds that:

  • The overall amount of infrastructure finance has grown in recent years after a temporary drop during the financial crisis. Market-based finance – mainly project and particularly corporate bond issuance as well as non-bank financing – has accounted for most of the growth in advanced economies in recent years.

  • Lending spreads for infrastructure finance have returned to lower levels in recent years following a spike during the crisis, but remain above pre-crisis levels.

  • There are some key differences in the provision of infrastructure finance in emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs) compared to advanced economies. EMDEs tend to rely more on bank loans, have a higher proportion of cross-border financing, and use local currency less for financing purposes.

  • The reforms have contributed to shorter average maturities of infrastructure loans by global systemically important banks. This effect is not necessarily unintended, given that reducing banks’ maturity mismatch was one of the objectives of the reforms.

  • While not analysing the ex post effects of reforms on financial resilience, the evaluation has found no results to suggest that the wider benefits to the financial system from enhanced resilience – as estimated at an aggregate level in ex ante impact assessment studies – do not apply in the narrower context of infrastructure finance.

The analysis points to some substitution in recent years of bank financing by market-based financing in advanced economies, and the G20 banking reforms may have been one of the drivers for this rebalancing.